Sanitation and Sterilization Course Material
Outline for Sanitation and Sterilization
1. Sanitation, Sterilization, andContagious Diseases
2. Bacteria, Harmful Bacteria, and Pathogenic Bacteria Classification
3. Growth and Reproduction of Bacteria, Active Stage and,Spore-Forming Stage
4. Bacterial Infections, How Bacteria Enter Our Bodies
5. Sources of Contagious Bacteria, Virus Fungi, and Parasites
6. Human Carriers
7. How to Sterilize Implements
8. Sterilizing with Chemical Agents. Demonstrates acceptable methods to sterilize with chemical agents.
9. Sterilizing Manicure Implements
10. Basic Rules
11. 61G5-20.002. Florida Administrative Code requirements for salon ventilation and cleanliness.
This course covers the subjects that deal with proper sterilization to protect both you and the public. The subjects discussed in this course are sanitation and sterilization, of the different types of infectious agents. It defines what bacteria are and reviews the different types of bacteria. The course outlines the growth and reproduction of bacteria and how bacteria cause infection. Attention is given to how a person can be a carrier of disease, how to sterilize implements, procedures for sterilizing manicure implements, and the different ways to sterilize with chemical agents. It concludes with the basic rules to follow for a safe salon and, finally, rule G5-20.002: ventilation and cleanliness requirement for salons.
Sanitation and Sterilization
While we typically note how our doctors and dentists maintain a sterile environment, most of us don't consider that the same standards should be set for those who are digging, filing, and clipping away at our feet and fingernails. Yet, the consequences of an unsanitary salon can be the same as those at any medical facility.
The sanitation and sterilization of equipment and surroundings are very important and, in order for you, the cosmetologist or specialty-license professional, to understand how important and necessary it is, you must first study bacteria. You must understand how the spread of disease can be prevented and become familiar with the precautions that must be taken to protect you and the clients’, health. It is the responsibility of the salon staff to keep the salon clean and sanitary. It is the responsibility of the individual to keep the instruments that they use compliant with the law. Some states now have consumer complaint forms available online. These forms are quick and convenient to use. They allow the public to communicate possible infractions to the regulating board. A growing number of states are beginning to use electronic complaint forms. Along with the introduction of this method of communication by the consumer will come a closer scrutiny from the governing boards and, therefore, should aid in an improved salon environment for a growing number of salons. Keeping a clean and sanitary salon will not only protect the client and the salon professional, but it will also ensure the salon professional will not run into troubles resulting from non-compliance with the sanitation laws of the state. The Florida law governing salon sanitation will be discussed later in this course. For now let’s take a look at bacteria, the growth of bacteria, and how they reproduce.
1. Non-pathogenic organisms constitute the majority of all bacteria and perform many useful functions, such as decomposing refuse and improving the fertility of the soil. To this group belongs the saprophyte which lives on dead matter.
2.Pathogenic organisms (microbes or germs), although in the minority, produce considerable damage by invading plant or animal tissues. Pathogenic bacteria are harmful because they produce disease. To this group belong the parasites, which require living material for their growth.
Pathogenic Bacteria Classification
As to form or general appearance, there are three major groups of bacteria.
1. Cocci (singular, coccus) are round shaped organisms, which appear singly or in groups:
(a) Staphylococci (singular, staphylococcus)¾ pus-forming organisms which grow in bunches or clusters, and are present in abscesses, pustules and boils.
(b) Streptococci (singular, streptococcus)¾ pus-forming organisms which grow in chains, as found in blood poisoning.
(c) Diplococci (singular, diplococcus)¾ grow in pairs and cause pneumonia.
(d) Gonococci (singular, gonococcus)¾ cause gonorrhea.
(e) Meningococci (singular, meningococcus)¾ cause meningitis.
2. Bacilli (singular, bacillus) are rod-shaped organisms which vary greatly in thickness. They are the most common and produce such diseases as tetanus (lockjaw), influenza, typhoid, tuberculosis, and diphtheria. Many bacilli are spore forming.
3. Spirilla (singular, spirillum) are curved or corkscrew-shaped organisms. They are further subdivided into several groups. The sub-group of chief importance is that of spirochaete organisms. The spirochaete called Treponema pallida is the causative agent in syphilis.
Growth and Reproduction
Bacteria consist of an outer cell wall and internal protoplasm. They manufacture their own food from the surrounding environment, give off waste products, and are capable of growth and reproduction. Bacteria may exhibit two distinct phases in their life cycle¾ the active stage and the inactive or spore-forming stage.
Active Stage Bacteria grow and reproduce. These microorganisms live and multiply in warm, dark, damp, and dirty places where sufficient food is present. Many parts of the human anatomy offer suitable breeding places for bacteria. When conditions are as mentioned above, bacteria reproduce at an unbelievable rate. As food is absorbed and converted into protoplasm, the bacterial cell increases in size. When the limit of growth is reached, it divides crossways in half, forming two daughter cells. From one bacterium, as many as sixteen million more may develop in half a day.
Spore-Forming Stage When favorable conditions cease to exist, bacteria either die or cease to multiply. Some bacteria can form spherical spores, which have a tough outer covering and are able to withstand long periods of dryness, periods of lacking food, or unsuitable temperature. Examples of bacteria that are capable of such action would be the anthrax and tetanus bacilli. In the spore stage, the spore can be blown about in the dust and is not harmed by disinfectants, heat or cold. When favorable conditions are restored, the spore changes back into the active, vegetative form and again starts to grow and reproduce.
Bacterial Infections Pathogenic bacteria become dangerous to health only when they successfully invade the body. An infection occurs if the body is unable to cope with the bacteria or their harmful toxins. An infection may be localized, as in a boil, or a general infection (the most dangerous) may result when the blood stream carries the bacteria and their toxins to all parts of the body, which is what occurs in blood poisoning or syphilis. The presence of pus is a sign of infection. Pus contains bacteria, body cells and blood cells, both living and dead. An infection is considered contagious when it tends to spread more or less readily from one person to another by direct or indirect contact. Precautions must be followed to prevent the spread of infection when it is in this contagious stage.
How Bacteria Enter Our Bodies
objects such as poorly maintained contact lenses; and finally, through breaks or wounds in the skin.
Sources of Contagious Bacteria
Sterilization and Sanitation
How to Sterilize
Sterilization is the process of destroying all bacteria, whether they are harmful or beneficial. Here is a list of the most common ways:Boiling:
Requires the immersing of towels, linens, or instruments in water heated to 212 degrees Fahrenheit.
Sterilizing with chemical agents
Antiseptics and Disinfectants
Antiseptic solutions are weaker than disinfectant solutions. They may not kill all the germs, but will prevent them from multiplying. They are gentle enough to be used on the skin. Disinfectants are much stronger and have the ability to destroy bacteria and prevent their multiplication. A germicide is a chemical agent that kills bacteria. The reason it is required that we sterilize is to destroy bacteria. It is a necessity to destroy bacteria in order to prevent the spread of diseases. This is the way we protect the public and ourselves.
Disinfectants and germicides are also antiseptic because they kill germs and retard the growth of more germs. Antiseptics, on the other hand, are not as powerful as germicides or disinfectants. Therefore they cannot be used as a germicide or disinfectant because they are not able to perform the necessary degree of germ killing. Always exercise caution when using any chemical on the skin. Many of the disinfectants and germicides are not manufactured with the intention of being placed on the skin and for this reason should not make contact with the skin. Read the manufacturer’s directions and the section on cautions posted on the label or the container, before you use any chemical product.
List of Germicides
Many common germicides are extremely poisonous, and therefore should not be used in beauty culture practice. These germicides act differently on different types of bacteria. Each one has been standardized for the concentration that is most effective. Certain germicides, when concentrated enough to be deadly to bacteria, cannot be used safely on the skin. Phenol, or carbolic acid, is a dangerous germicide. Should your skin come in contact with this acid, you should immediately immerse in it alcohol and apply alcoholic dressings.
Note: A sanitized nailbrush may be used for a more precise cleaning. This must be done before you service each new client. (Remember that cash is one of the dirtiest things you will handle. It is covered with germs that get passed from one individual to another.)
Preparing for Dry Sterilization
Cleaning Combs and Brushes
Sterilizing Combs and Brushes
Sterilizing Metallic Implements With Chemical Solutions
Formaldehyde and FormalinFormaldehyde is a gas with powerful germicide properties. Formalin is a 37% to 40% solution of the gas in water.
2.5 % Formalin is used as a deodorant for sponging the armpits, etc. (Preparation: 1 part formalin, 39 parts water.)
5% Formalin may be used as an antiseptic to rinse hands, when you have come in contact with wounds, skin, eruptions, etc. Formalin may also be used to sponge shampoo boards, chairs, etc.
10% Formalin may be used to sterilize articles such as combs and brushes by immersing them in the solution for at least 20 minutes or as required by your State Board of Cosmetology.
25% Formalin solution is recommended to sterilize instruments by immersing them in the solution for about 10 minutes, or as required by your State Board of Cosmetology.
Full strength formalin is used when sterilizing will be done in a dry (vapor) sterilizer.
These compounds are effective as disinfectants. They are available under different trade and chemical names. The advantages are a short disinfection time, being odorless, non-toxic and stable. A 1:1000 parts solution is commonly used to sterilize implements. Immersion time ranges from 1 to 5 minutes depending upon the strength of the solution.
Using Chemical Disinfectants
Wash implements thoroughly with soap and warm water. Use final plain water rinse to remove all traces of soap. Immerse implements into wet sterilizer. Remove implements from wet sterilizer, rinse in water, and wipe dry with clean towel. Store sterilized implements in individually wrapped cellophane envelopes or keep them in a cabinet sterilizer until ready to be used.
Other Antiseptics and DisinfectantsAlcohol: A powerful antiseptic. On the skin use a 50% to 60% solution. 70% grain alcohol is used to sterilize instruments and electrodes.
Lysol: Is a cheap but efficient disinfectant with a disagreeable odor. A 10% soap solution is used for cleanses floors, sinks and toilets.
Iodine: Tincture of Iodine, 2% U.S.P. is a good antiseptic for the skin.
Hydrogen Peroxide: 3% to 5% solution liberates oxygen for its antiseptic action. It can be used for minor wounds.
Cleaning Metallic Implements
Sterilizing Metallic Implements
Storing Metallic Implements
Sterilizing Electrodes & Sharp Cutting Implements
Sharp cutting instruments: Clean the blades with warm, soapy water, making sure the water does not make contact with the pivots of the razors or shears, as these parts of the instruments may corrode. Dry thoroughly.
Sterilizing Electric Clippers
Storing Electrodes and Implements
Sterilizing Manicure Implements
A person with an infectious disease can be contagious to others. It is for this reason that a cosmetologist having a communicable disease or illness must not be permitted to handle clients. At the same time, clients having a communicable disease or infectious condition also must not be serviced in the salon. Following this practice protects the cosmetologist, the client, and the other clients as well, from exposure. In this way the best interests of everyone will be served.
The Salons Drinking Water
The water supplied in the salon and intended for consumption must be odorless, colorless and free from any foreign matter. Crystal clear water may still be unsanitary because of the presence of pathogenic bacteria, which cannot be seen with the naked eye.
FLORIDA ADMINISTATIVE CODE
Ventilation and Cleanliness:
61G5-20.002 Salon Requirements
1.Each salon shall be kept well ventilated. The walls, ceilings, furniture and equipment shall be kept clean and free from dust. Hair must not be allowed to accumulate on the floor of the salon. Hair must be deposited in a closed container. Each salon which provides services for the extending or sculpturing of nails shall provide such services in a separate area which is adequately ventilated for the safe dispersion of all fumes resulting from the services.
2. Toilet and Lavatory Facilities: Each salon shall provide --on the premises or in the same building as, and within 300 feet of, the salon -- adequate toilet and lavatory facilities. To be adequate, such facilities shall have at least one toilet and one sink with running water. Such facilities shall be equipped with toilet tissue, soap dispenser with soap or other hand cleaning material, sanitary towels or other hand-drying device such as a wall-mounted electric blow dryer, and waste receptacle. Such facilities and all of the foregoing fixtures and components shall be kept clean, in good repair, well lighted, and adequately ventilated to remove objectionable odors.
3. A salon or specialty salon may be located at a place of residence. Salon facilities must be separated from the living quarters by a permanent wall construction. A separate entrance shall be provided to allow entry to the salon other than from the living quarters. Toilet and lavatory facilities shall comply with (c) 2. above and shall have an entrance from the salon other than the living quarters.
4. Animals: No animals or pets shall be allowed in a salon, with the exception of fish kept in closed aquariums, or trained animals to assist the hearing impaired, visually impaired, or the physically disabled.
5. Shampoo Bowls: Each salon shall have shampoo bowls equipped with hot and cold running water. The shampoo bowls shall be located in the area where cosmetology services are being performed. A specialty salon that exclusively provides specialty services, as defined in Section 477.013(6), F.S., need not have a shampoo bowl, but must have a sink or lavatory equipped with hot and cold running water on the premises of the salon.
(2) Each salon shall comply with the following:
(a) Linens: Each salon shall keep clean linens in a closed, dust proof cabinet. All soiled linens must be kept in a closed receptacle. Soiled linens may be kept in open containers if entirely separated from the area in which cosmetology services are rendered to the public. A sanitary towel or neck strip shall be placed around the patron's neck to avoid direct contact of the shampoo cape with a patron’s skin.
(b) Containers: Salons must use containers for waving lotions and other preparations of such type as will prevent contamination of the unused portion. All creams shall be removed from containers.
Milady Textbook of Cosmetology The Van Dean Manual http://www.salonsafety.com/safetysheets